Frameworks

I’m in a postmodernism class at university this semester. Despite the eyerolling of my peers when I mention the topic, I find it very interesting so far. Today’s class got me thinking about some math.

In the past, I have worked a lot with frameworks for doing programming and math. I wanted to find a fundamental system in which all my ideas could be expressed; I latched on to Martin Bunder’s IΞ and IG as being particularly simple and beautiful. I used to be a compulsive programming language designer, searching for simple, beautiful ideas with which to express all programs. I still have the urge now and then, but never follow through anymore.

In today’s pomo class, we were talking about the postmodern view of modernism (as I suspect we will be for quite some time): having some framework in which to conceive of the world, of all of history, and viewing that framework as fundamental. If that framework begins to crack, then we throw it out and make a new framework (calling the new one “modern” this time) in which to conceive of everything. Postmodernism views this cycle as one that continues indefinitely in this stage of history.

Some of the culture of mathematics follows this trend (ZFC, NBG, Löf type theory, intuitionism), but especially programming languages follow this trend. We are always in seek of new frameworks in which all programs can be expressed: structured programming (Dijkstra), object-oriented, functional. There is leakage, but programmers tend to throw out old models with cracks and adopt new ones as if there will be no more cracks. There seems to be a swing toward the functional recently — dare we imagine that it has any cracks?

At this point I suspect some of you are already developing your indignant responses. As programmers, we are entrenched in modernist ideals. I seem to be criticizing this cycle, and surely if I am criticizing then something must replace it. Whatever replaces it is going to be just another cycle. Indeed, as I indulge in my postmodernistic ramblings (which I assure you I have no confidence in — it is only the second week), in the back of my mind I keep imagining a language which transcends these problems. But of course it does not, because it is itself just another fundamental system. The key for me, and all of us trapped in this mode of thought, is merely to observe without trying to replace it with something better, something new.

Another possible response is that this cycle of reinvention is the only way progress can be made. That is a very good point, but in it we are taking for granted the assumption that progress exists and is desirable.

Programming is a difficult thing to talk about in this context, because it is a medium that we use to create things, and we can (at least roughly) measure how good we are at creating things in various frameworks. Being good at creating things is an implicit goal for a programming system, which comes out of the idea that creating things is progress and progress is good. Mathematics may have a nature that will make this exploration clearer, and then we can perhaps take our realizations about mathematics and apply them back to programming.

You might say that mathematics is about progress. After all, the ultimate pursuit of mathematics is to prove as many theorems as possible; or so those who study mathematical frameworks would have you believe. I have never been enamored with math as a competition to prove theorems; I like it because it alters (not “improves”) the way I think. I replace constructs with which I used to represent ideas with new ones. I used to think of real numbers as “fractions with extra stuff”, now I think of them as programs incrementally refining information. It has led me to think more topologically and less algebraically. Is more topologically better? I doubt it; it is just more recent. It permits seeing analogies that we could not previously see, but at the same time it hides analogies that we could previously see (though we do not notice that half, because we have already developed our intuitions about those using the previous framework). Mathematicians of tomorrow may only think topologically, and they will find more analogies by “discovering” algebraic thinking.

Programming is not so different. I do love functional programming, but that is because I have taken a lot of time to develop those ideas. There are object oriented programmers who are very talented at expressing ideas in that language, and I cannot understand their designs (or, perhaps more accurately, why their designs should be considered better than many nearby designs). Good ol’ procedural structured programming is still a good way to communicate to a computer how to do something fast. As the future drives forward, the past is erased; when it is forgotten its niche will re-emerge and it will be re-invented.

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3 thoughts on “Frameworks

  1. I definitely agree that much of CS is still quite modernist. However, CS is already in the beginnings of post-modernism. To witness this, take a look at the move from monolithic one-size-fits-all languages to multi-paradigm languages. Folks in the scripting world have left behind the idea that one paradigm is sufficient for all things and have adopted more of a whatever-works mentality. (Larry Wall himself has called Perl the first pomo programming language.) Sans the moral and ethical issues of studying human cultures, this exactly parallels the modernist to post-modernist transition. I find it intriguing that functional programing a la Haskell is bucking this trend by firmly adhering to type safety; which may bear on the following point…

    One thing to bear in mind in the pomo class is that the humanities have since moved on from pomo to newer ideas (e.g., performativity). It’s worthwhile to bear in mind that even though pomo considers itself the end of progress, it isn’t. In order to fully appreciate the role of pomo in the humanities you should compare it not just to modernism, but also to structuralism and functionalism. I’d be curious to hear your thoughts throughout the semester on how this dialogue should play out in CS.

  2. You speak of “frameworks in which all programs can be expressed.” Are you familiar with formal language theory, specifically the Church-Turing thesis?

  3. @Kevin, yes. I’m talking about a more human issue. Perhaps I should have said “frameworks in which all programs can be expressed simply and naturally”. For example, I’m not considering solving a problem in Haskell then writing a Java implementation of a Haskell interpreter as an object-oriented solution to that problem.

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